Tuesday, January 31, 2023
HomeCulture〜ている (Teiru) vs 〜てある (Tearu) vs 〜ておく(Teoku)

〜ている (Teiru) vs 〜てある (Tearu) vs 〜ておく(Teoku)

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Studying to distinguish the refined nuances between 〜ている, 〜てある, and 〜ておく could be one of many largest complications for Japanese learners. Not solely do they give the impression of being comparable, however they’ll all serve an identical goal, too: these grammar patterns describe a state of affairs created by some intentional motion executed previously. Regardless of their similarities, every sample emphasizes or implies one thing totally different, resembling an motion being executed in preparation of one thing, or remaining within the state the motion created.

As an instance you normally go away the window open at evening to let in some cool air. To inform somebody about this behavior, you should utilize both 〜ている, 〜てある, or 〜ておく and say:

  • いつも夜は窓を開け [ている・てある・ておく] 。
  • I normally preserve the window open at evening.

See how all of them describe the state of the open window, which was created by the motion of you opening the window? In that means, the three expressions can work very equally.

However what precisely is the distinction between these expressions, and the way would you select which one to make use of? The additional nuance that is implied by every is mirrored within the translations beneath, so examine them out to see what every sentence sounds prefer to a local speaker.

  • いつも夜は窓を開けている。
  • I normally preserve the window open at evening.
  • いつも夜は窓を開けてある。
  • I normally preserve the window open at evening (so it will not get too scorching).
  • いつも夜は窓を開けておく。
  • I normally preserve the window open at evening (in order that I will not have to fret about getting too scorching and waking up in the course of the evening).

So you possibly can see there are some refined variations within the nuance right here. However don’t fret if the excellence remains to be a bit hazy. The excellent news is that 〜ている, 〜てある, and 〜ておく aren’t all the time interchangeable. (A minimum of, we hope that is excellent news.) Just like the earlier instance sentences, every sample has its personal set of implications, making it higher suited to sure conditions than the others. This text will enable you be taught extra about these fundamental distinctions, so you can perceive the refined variations in nuance within the makes use of that overlap each other.

Conditions: This text assumes you already know hiragana and katakana. If it’s good to brush up, take a look at our Final Hiragana Information and Final Katakana Information. Though this text begins with a fundamental clarification of every grammatical sample, you may additionally wish to try our grammar pages on 〜ている, 〜てある, and 〜ておく for a extra detailed background clarification on every expression, as this text focuses extra on deeper nuances. Moreover, data about transitive and intransitive verbs is a plus, since we’ll even be discussing transitivity as a way to clarify the variations between 〜ている, 〜てある, and 〜ておく.

The Primary Ideas of 〜ている, 〜てある, and 〜ておく

Let’s start by evaluating the fundamental ideas of 〜ている, 〜てある, and 〜ておく. We’ll get to some examples afterward, however listed here are the elemental ideas behind every sample:

〜ている: When related to a verb, this expresses an ongoing motion or a steady state initiated by an motion previously.

〜てある: When related to a verb, this describes the present state of one thing whereas typically hinting that the state of affairs was beforehand devised deliberately.

〜ておく: When connected to a verb, this suggests the motion is taken to finish a job in preparation for one thing, as a way to “put” (the verb くmeans “to place”) it out of your thoughts. Relying on the tense, it will possibly seek advice from an motion you are going to take or have already taken. It could actually additionally denote the state of issues after finishing a job.

The important thing variations between the three are the nuance, the extent of intention, and whether or not the main focus is on the motion itself, or a state of affairs that’s the results of that motion. We’ll be discussing all these key variations all through the article, so don’t fret in case you are not getting it simply but.

Subsequent, let’s take a better take a look at how every sample works whereas making use of the ideas famous above.

ている

〜ている is the plainest and most impartial of the three patterns. It has two features: it will possibly describe a steady motion, or a state which is the results of a earlier motion. A method to think about it’s as expressing a kind of “activation mode.” What 〜ている does is categorical an ongoing state of affairs that is “activated” by one thing that occurred or that has began taking place. Let’s check out some examples of ~ている to see the way it works.

Describing Issues Which might be At the moment Occurring

First, let’s rapidly go over tips on how to use 〜ている to speak about one thing that is presently taking place. For instance, say you are working within the kitchen and your child is available in to ask what you are doing. On this state of affairs, you would possibly say:

  • 今、お弁当を作っている。
  • I am making bento proper now.

This expression works equally to the current steady ( -ing ) in English, which reveals that an motion is going on similtaneously it is being spoken about.

Right here, 〜ている is used to point that you’re within the strategy of “making a bento.” The implication is that it is nonetheless underway, however you have already began the method. You began cooking, and so the act of cooking has been activated.

Additionally remember that particle を is commonly omitted in dialog, however we’ll preserve it on this article in order that the sentence construction is simpler to know.

That is the most typical operate of 〜ている, however when used like this it will possibly’t get replaced with 〜てある or 〜ておく.

Describing the Ensuing State Activated by a Previous Motion

Along with describing one thing that is presently taking place, 〜ている can be used to explain a state of affairs or situation that’s the product of a previous motion or occasion. On this use, 〜ている typically features like an adjective as a result of it is used to explain the way in which one thing is.

As an instance your child finds a bento field that is been left on the kitchen counter with the lid open. They let you know:

  • お弁当のフタが開いているよ。
  • The bento lid is open.
a bento with an open lid

Discover that 〜ている is used in a different way from the earlier instance. く is an intransitive verb meaning “to open,” however on this sentence the 〜ている type it means “to be open,” slightly than “opening.”

〜ている typically features like an adjective as a result of it is used to explain the way in which one thing is.

It’s because the verb く normally signifies an instantaneous change. As soon as the lid has begun to be opened, the “opened state” of the lid is “activated.” With verbs that change the state of one thing instantaneously like く, utilizing the 〜ている type lets you describe the state of one thing that resulted from the change as an alternative of an ongoing motion.

Why? As a result of with an intransitive verb like く, there is not any implication past the bento lid being open. It solely describes the bento lid being open, whereas not specializing in who carried out the motion. Keep in mind, 〜てある and 〜ておく all the time suggest that there’s intention or goal behind the motion being described. So with out this implication, you possibly can’t swap 〜てある or 〜ておく for 〜ている on this instance.

Describing the Ensuing State Activated by an “Intentional” Motion

Within the earlier part we coated that when used with an intransitive verb, 〜ている is not essentially interchangeable with 〜てある/〜ておく. It’s because with intransitive verbs there is not any indication of the motion being described as intentional. However how a few transitive verb? Let’s check out one other instance, persevering with the bento state of affairs.

Suppose you are leaving the bento lid open on goal. However since your child is commenting on it being open, you wish to inform them that it was deliberately left open in order that they do not shut it. So that you say:

  • フタ、開けてるんだよ!
  • I am leaving the lid open!

Right here, discover the verb is ける, which implies “to open one thing” — the transitive model of く that you just noticed earlier. With 〜ている, this sentence might imply you are “opening the lid” if that is what you might be presently doing — i.e. your hand is on the lid and about to take away it — nevertheless it’s clearly not the state of affairs right here. Relatively, this can be a response to the query in regards to the lid that is already been opened, so it describes the bento field being left open, which resulted out of your previous intentional motion of opening the bento and leaving it that means.

You might need additionally observed wanting carefully on the instance that the expression used is てる as an alternative of 〜ている. It is not a typo — each kinds are grammatically right. 〜ている is normally shortened in informal conversations.

Out of the three makes use of of 〜ている, that is the one one which can be utilized interchangeably with 〜てある or 〜ておく (or slightly 〜ておいた, the previous tense). Which means you possibly can additionally use 〜てある or 〜ておく to clarify that you just deliberately opened the lid and left it that means, like this:

フタ、開け [てある・ておいた] んだよ!

Why? The quick reply is that this use of 〜ている implies an “intention” and you may inform that by the context. We’ll get right into a deeper comparability of ~ている, ~てある, and ~ておく in a bit, so for now, simply remember that this very particular use of ~ている is the one one that may be interchangeable with the opposite two.

てある

〜てある signifies that the state of affairs was brought on deliberately, typically for a specific goal.

Now on to 〜てある. Initially, 〜てある describes the present state of one thing with the implication that somebody did one thing to it earlier and left it that means. That “somebody” can both be your self or another person, relying on the particle that precedes it.

It is also necessary to notice that 〜てある is all the time used with a transitive verb, as a result of a transitive verb is a kind of verb that signifies an intentional motion.

〜を〜てある for a State of affairs Brought on by Your self

As I briefly talked about, 〜てある can be utilized when describing a state of affairs that resulted from both your personal or another person’s motion. And there is a straightforward approach to differentiate between the 2: every makes use of a unique particle.

Earlier than we actually get into the mechanics of issues, let’s circle again to utilizing 〜てある to explain a state of affairs that is the results of your personal motion. Keep in mind the bento instance from earlier? We talked about that you should utilize 〜てある to clarify that you just opened the bento field and are leaving it open, like this:

  • お弁当のフタを開けてある。
  • I am leaving the lid of the bento field open.

Though を can typically be omitted in spoken Japanese, this 〜を〜てある sample is the construction used when speaking a few state of affairs brought on by your self.

On this instance, を marks the lid as the item of the sentence. Because of this the probably topic, though not clearly acknowledged, is the speaker, or 私 which means “I,” which might be understood from the context.

Let’s keep it up the bento-making state of affairs for an additional instance. Making an attempt to think about one thing that may pair properly with the bento for dessert, you keep in mind that you obtain some yogurt to have available for an event like this. On this case, you should utilize 〜てある and say to your self:

  • ヨーグルトを買ってある。
  • There’s some yogurt (as a result of I purchased some).
yogurt in the fridge

Keep in mind you could additionally use 〜ている or 〜ておく to precise one thing comparable. We’ll speak about this in additional element afterward.

〜が〜てある For a State of affairs Brought on by Somebody Else

One distinctive facet of 〜てある is how it may be used to explain a state of affairs that is brought on by another person.

Take for instance a state of affairs that is barely totally different from the earlier one — you come throughout some yogurt within the fridge when searching for a dessert for the bento. However on this case, you might be not the one who purchased it. You would possibly say one thing like:

  • ヨーグルトが買ってある!
  • There’s some yogurt (that somebody will need to have purchased)!

What 〜てある is doing right here is describing that the yogurt is within the fridge, whereas additionally implying that somebody (not you) purchased it earlier. Whereas the sentences are practically an identical, the distinction is in the usage of particles.

This would possibly really feel tough, however here is a tip. Take into consideration ある on the finish because the verb used for non-living issues’ existence. The verb ある pairs up with が and signifies “there’s…” proper? So ヨーグルトがある means “there’s some yogurt,” and that is simply describing what’s there objectively. ヨーグルトが買ってある is just like this, nevertheless it simply provides the implication that the motion (“yogurt was purchased,” on this case) was carried out by somebody apart from you.

Identical to 〜がある, you might be describing the state of affairs kind of objectively as a result of you weren’t concerned within the motion — another person was. And identical to ある typically expresses the sense of realization when it is paired with the topic marker が, 〜てある carries the nuance that you just got here to a realization, too. So ヨーグルトが買ってある hints that it was a shock to you (and it was a pleasant one).

And identical to ある typically expresses the sense of realization when it is paired with the topic marker が, 〜てある carries the nuance that you just got here to a realization, too.

To summarize, 〜てある can take the particle が to mark one thing that is seemingly an object (“yogurt,” on this case) regardless that it’s used with a transitive verb. And when it does that, it implies that somebody aside from you carried out the motion that resulted within the state it describes. That is one thing distinctive to 〜てある, and what makes it totally different from 〜ている and 〜ておく. In different phrases, ヨーグルト買っている or ヨーグルト買っておく usually are not legitimate sentences — really, these sound like yogurt is the topic who’s shopping for (one thing). It might be tremendous bizarre except the individual’s identify was Yogurt (which will surely be a twist).

ておく

〜ておく can serve two features relying on the tense. Within the current tense, it seems that you might be finishing a job for future comfort as a way to “put” it out of your thoughts. However, previously tense, 〜ておいた denotes the state of a accomplished job.

ておく For Future Actions To Full Duties

Particularly used within the current tense, 〜ておく is a little bit totally different from the opposite two patterns mentioned thus far. Whereas 〜ている and 〜てある can be utilized to explain the present state of issues, 〜ておく signifies a future motion. Particularly, the longer term completion of a job so you possibly can “put” it out of your thoughts.

a to-do list

For instance, for those who’re presently within the course of of creating a bento and resolve to depart the lid off to let some steam out, you should utilize 〜ておく and say:

  • お弁当のフタを開けておく。
  • I will go away the lid of the bento field open (to let the steam out so I will not have to fret about it getting musty and spoiling).

It is a slight distinction that is necessary to notice right here between utilizing 〜ておく within the current tense and the earlier examples with 〜ていく and 〜てある. The place they have been used to explain a state of affairs the place a bento field is left open deliberately, right here 〜ておく is indicating your (very close to) future plan of leaving the lid open.

You are utilizing 〜ておく since you wish to categorical that you just’re doing this in your future comfort.

On this case, you wish to let the steam out to forestall it from getting musty contained in the bento field.

You could be questioning “Why does 〜ておく point out a future motion, not the present state of one thing like 〜ている and 〜てある?” Nicely, it would assist for those who consider it like this. 〜ておく comes from the verb く which means “to place.” Identical to another motion verb, when used within the current tense, it will possibly point out a future motion, along with a basic act or a behavior.

As compared, take into consideration 〜ている and 〜てある, and their roots — the verbs いる and ある. These verbs are a bit particular, differing barely from common motion verbs in that they point out the existence of issues, or describe the way in which issues are slightly than one thing that wants “doing.” Hopefully, that helps you higher perceive how 〜ておく works within the current tense.

Now, let’s check out one other instance. Say you are on the grocery retailer to purchase yogurt in your bento. You should use 〜ておく and say:

  • ヨーグルトを買っておく。
  • I will purchase some yogurt (so as to add to my bento).

Right here, 〜ておく carries the nuance that you will do one thing as a way to “get it executed,” or out of the way in which. And once more, notice that it is the future motion or plan that you’re utilizing 〜ておく to explain.

ておいた For Accomplished Duties

Thus far, we have mentioned the variations within the nuance of 〜ておく within the current tense to speak a few future motion. Now let’s check out the way it’s used previously tense (〜ておいた) to speak a few present state of affairs that’s the direct results of an motion carried out previously, i.e. one thing you took care of previously that resulted within the current state of issues.

Let’s carry again the earlier instance of leaving the bento field lid open. To say you left it open, it’s good to conjugate 〜ておく to the previous tense and say :

  • お弁当のフタを開けておいた。
  • I left the lid of the bento field open (to let the steam out so I will not have to fret about it getting musty and spoiling).

On this case, the main focus is extra in your previous motion (opening the lid), however it will possibly additionally point out the present state ensuing from the motion (the lid is left open), relying on the context.

Now, keep in mind that yogurt from earlier than? If you wish to point out that there is some yogurt for the bento since you purchased it earlier for that goal, you should utilize 〜ておいた and say:

  • ヨーグルトを買っておいた。
  • I’ve purchased some yogurt (for bento making).

Though these conditions might be described in an identical method utilizing 〜ている or 〜てある, let’s not neglect the particular nuance of 〜ておいた — it all the time implies that you just carried out an motion with the intention of inflicting the present state of affairs since you wished to get one thing out of the way in which. On this case, perhaps you felt you wanted to have a backup bento filler and to serve the aim you obtain some yogurt. So this stresses that you just purchased the yogurt in preparation for the longer term. Because of this, out of the three patterns 〜ておいた most strongly implies your intention behind the motion.

ておく For Routine Actions To Full Duties

Earlier, we talked about how 〜ておく can be utilized to explain a future motion, however that is not the one factor 〜ておく can categorical within the current tense. Actually, relying on the context it can be used to precise a routine motion. Keep in mind, the basis of 〜ておく is the motion verb く (“to place”), and motion verbs when used within the current tense can categorical a basic act or behavior of doing one thing, not solely a future motion. Let’s check out another instance of ~ておく within the current tense, bringing again the primary instance on this article, the window:

  • いつも夜は窓を開けておく。
  • I normally preserve the window open at evening.

As you noticed beforehand on this instance, ~ている, ~てある, and ~ておく can be utilized interchangeably within the current tense to explain a routine motion or one thing you do repeatedly for a cause. Nevertheless, there are refined variations in nuance between them.

Of the three, 〜ておく is definitely essentially the most nuanced — it implies that you just did one thing in your future comfort. On this case, perhaps you retain the window open so you will not have to fret about getting too scorching and waking up in the course of the evening. Or, perhaps as a result of your children fantasize about Peter Pan coming by the window and taking them to Neverland.

Regardless of the cause, 〜ておく implies that no matter you are describing is one thing you wish to get out of the way in which.

In spite of everything, you don’t need your children waking you up in the course of the evening and complaining that you just did not go away the window open for Peter Pan, you recognize?

Now that we have coated all of the fundamentals, within the subsequent part we’ll take a deeper take a look at how the nuance modifications with every sample relying on the state of affairs.

So…What is the Distinction In Conditions When They’re All Interchangeable?

Now let’s lastly get into the comparisons of the three patterns: 〜ている, 〜てある, and 〜ておく. As a fast assessment, they’re primarily interchangeable when used to explain the present state of one thing that resulted from a previous motion (normally one thing intentional).

So, what precisely is the distinction in these conditions once they can be utilized interchangeably? Let’s discover out by going by just a few examples and evaluating the nuances.

Totally different Ranges of Intention

expresses intention much less < expresses intention extra

ている てある ておく

One of many most important variations in nuance between 〜ている (or slightly, its shortened model てる), 〜てある, and 〜ておく is the extent of intention.

For the primary instance, let’s return to bento once more. Say that you just’re cooking (or have cooked) rice as a result of it is a vital aspect of bento.

ご飯を い [てる・てある・ておいた] 。

Damaged down, ご飯 is “rice,” and the verb paired with it which means “to cook dinner” is く. So what precisely is the distinction in nuance once we use every totally different sample?

〜ている

Let’s check out ご飯を いてる. This sentence can really be interpreted in a few methods. The primary is:

  • ご飯を炊いてる
  • I am cooking rice.
a rice cooker

This is without doubt one of the attainable translations — the current steady use of 〜ている to clarify what you are presently doing — means you might be in the course of cooking rice. (Be aware that 〜てある and 〜ておく can’t be used to precise an motion that’s presently underway.)

The opposite attainable which means of this sentence is:

  • ご飯を炊いてる
  • The rice is cooked.

Do not forget that 〜ている also can denote the ensuing state of an motion, i.e. the state of the rice that’s already cooked. So how have you learnt when it means what? That may depend upon the context of the dialog. Say your child requested a sandwich for lunch, and also you say this to inform them that you just already made rice. (Too late, kiddo!) That is when 〜ている is interchangeable with 〜てある or 〜ておいた.

By way of intention, く is a transitive verb, and “rice being cooked” will not occur by itself (somebody’s gotta cook dinner rice, you recognize?) so technically talking there’s some implication of this right here. Nevertheless, in comparison with the opposite two patterns, 〜ている does not emphasize the intentional nuance as a lot. So this model with 〜ている sounds such as you’re simply merely stating that you just cooked the rice and the rice is prepared.

〜てある

Now, what about いてある? As a fast reminder, 〜てある describes a state of affairs the place you probably did one thing and also you left it that means for a cause.

  • ご飯を炊いてある。
  • The rice is cooked (for a cause).

In comparison with 〜ている, the 〜てある model has a stronger and clearer indication of the intention behind the state of affairs being described, as in case you are saying, “I cooked rice for a cause.” This model is usually used whenever you wish to draw consideration to one thing you have executed and particularly left that means. In different phrases, this nearly appears like a heads-up or the explanation for issues being the way in which they’re.

The explanation could possibly be for making onigiri, or no matter different cause you would possibly cook dinner rice. Implying that there is a cause for it naturally provides a extra intentional nuance, particularly in comparison with 〜ている. In that sense, this might make a good stronger assertion to your child who requested a sandwich on the final minute.

〜ておく

Lastly, 〜ておいた carries the strongest stage of intention. To remind you, 〜ておく principally signifies the act of doing one thing for future comfort.

  • ご飯を炊いておいた。
  • I cooked the rice (for future comfort).

So this sentence sounds such as you cooked the rice to make issues straightforward later. Now, remember, 〜ておく additionally provides off the vibe of doing one thing upfront so you possibly can put it out of your thoughts — such as you’re going forward and marking a job off of your to-do checklist. It is a very nuanced expression!

〜ておく additionally provides off the vibe of doing one thing upfront so you possibly can put it out of your thoughts — such as you’re going forward and marking a job off of your to-do checklist.

Perhaps you began cooking the rice very first thing within the morning. It takes a while for rice to cook dinner, and it’ll take a while for it to chill down so you possibly can pack it within the bento. As soon as your children get up, you won’t get an opportunity to rinse the rice and begin the rice cooker. So, desirous about the precise course of, it is smart to cook dinner it sooner slightly than later so you will not have to fret about it not being prepared in time.

Chances are you’ll by no means have on condition that a lot thought to the logistics of cooking rice, or perhaps it is already a stable routine of yours, however on this sense 〜ておく implies that you just had a thought course of and there was some kind of planning concerned. This provides extra of the “intention” nuance in comparison with the opposite two patterns.

What’s extra, with 〜ておく the main focus is definitely in your motion slightly than the ensuing state of affairs — we’ll speak extra about this within the following part. This sample stresses your contribution, whereas the opposite two spotlight the truth that rice is cooked. So utilizing 〜ておく emphasizes your intention barely greater than 〜てある and may even sound a little bit extra braggy, such as you’re implying, “I did this in your comfort, okay?”

State of affairs-Centered vs Motion-Centered

One other level of distinction is whether or not the emphasis is on the motion, or the ensuing state or state of affairs brought on by that motion. You might need observed the slight distinction within the earlier instance translations — “the rice is cooked” and “I cooked the rice.” Technically talking, this in the end depends upon the context, however realizing the place the emphasis lies for every sample ought to enable you get the gist of the variations in nuance a little bit higher.

Principally, the principle distinction is that 〜てある focuses on the results of the motion (“the rice is cooked”) whereas 〜ておく focuses on the motion itself (“I cooked the rice”), and 〜ている is kind of impartial and will deal with both relying on the context.

situation-focused action-focused

てある ている ておく

This is an instance to elaborate on what this implies. As an instance you set strawberries within the bento as a result of that is your child’s favourite fruit. To ship this excellent news, you should utilize any of the three: 〜ている (or its shortened, extra natural-sounding model 〜てる), 〜てある, or 〜ておく:

お弁当にいちごを入れ [てる・てある・ておいた] よ!

Now let’s check out how every of those patterns can have a barely totally different nuanced which means.

〜てある (State of affairs-Centered)

  • お弁当にいちごを入れあるよ!
  • There are strawberries within the bento (since you like strawberries)!
a bento with some strawberries in it

The foundation verb ある means “to exist,” so it is used to explain the way in which issues are slightly than the motion that brought on the state of affairs.

Right here, 〜てある is describing the state of affairs, slightly than the motion that brought on it. In different phrases, it describes the state of the strawberries being within the bento. It is calling explicit consideration to the strawberries, so the implication of you placing them there takes a again seat to the strawberries themselves on this case.

Now, you could be questioning about 〜ている as a result of its root verb additionally means “to exist.” It could actually actually be situation-focused, however we additionally want to consider how 〜ている can be used to seek advice from an motion, particularly steady motion. We’ll speak extra about this within the following part.

〜ている (Motion-Centered/State of affairs-Centered)

  • お弁当にいちごを入れてるよ!
  • I’m placing strawberries within the bento!
    There are strawberries within the bento!

〜ている might be each situation-focused and action-focused, and the main focus varies relying on the context. It’s because 〜ている has two main features — one which emphasizes the motion itself (steady motion), and one which focuses on the state of affairs brought on by the motion (ensuing state). On this explicit instance, 〜ている can point out the “motion,” resembling what you are presently doing (“I am placing strawberries in as we converse”), or the state the place “strawberries are within the bento.”

〜ておく (Motion-Centered)

We talked about that the main focus of 〜ておく is on the motion itself, which on this case is “placing strawberries within the bento.”

  • お弁当にいちごを入れておいたよ!
  • I put strawberries within the bento (as a result of I do know you may get pleasure from them)!

Because of this 〜ておく is used to speak about an motion taken with the intention of making a sure state of affairs, whereas 〜ている and 〜てある describe the state of affairs that is brought on by the motion.

〜ておく is used to speak about an motion taken with the intention of making a sure state of affairs

It could be good to think about this from the viewpoint of the basis verb く(to place) as properly. く is an motion verb, or a verb that signifies an motion — “placing.” Against this, the verbs いる and ある are stative verbs which means “to exist.” There is not any categorical motion concerned; they merely point out the state of one thing. This would possibly enable you keep in mind that 〜ておく is extra “action-focused” whereas the opposite two are “situation-focused,” describing how issues are as the results of the motion.

Speaking About Your Habits

Like we talked about earlier within the instance about maintaining the window open at evening, 〜ている, 〜てある, and 〜ておく can be utilized interchangeably to speak about your habits. So let’s check out the ultimate nuance, evaluating the three patterns when speaking about habits, after which assessment what you have realized thus far.

Say you are on the park speaking to a different mother or father whereas your children are taking part in. But it surely’s awkward. You want some excuse to depart so that you casually drop in one thing about your day by day schedule and say:

  • いつも、6時にはお風呂をわかし [てる・てある・ておく] んだ。
  • I normally have the bathtub prepared by 6 p.m.

Once more, all three patterns are interchangeable right here, however with a really slight distinction in nuance between 〜ておく and 〜てある. Oh, and see that 〜ておく is just not previously tense right here nevertheless it works tremendous since you’re speaking a few basic behavior. Now, let’s take a better take a look at how every one works.

〜ている

  • いつも、6時にはお風呂をわかしてるんだ。
  • I normally have the bathtub prepared by 6 p.m.
    I normally run a scorching bathtub by 6 p.m.

In the identical vein as describing what you are presently doing, 〜ている can be used to explain your habits, as a result of a behavior is one thing you do usually (not simply an motion going down within the present second). On this case, it is also describing the ensuing state of the bathtub being prepared by 6 p.m., so it is interchangeable with 〜てある and 〜ておく.

〜ている can be used to explain your habits, as a result of a behavior is one thing you do usually

Keep in mind how 〜ている might be situation-focused and action-focused? This explicit instance really feels a bit obscure when it comes to the main focus as a result of it is a mixture of each: 〜ている describing a routine motion in addition to the ensuing state of affairs. In that sense, this sentence leaves it unclear whether or not you begin working scorching water by 6 p.m. otherwise you have it prepared by 6 p.m. — It could possibly be interpreted in each methods.

And, how else is that this use of 〜ている totally different from the opposite two? This 〜ている model is solely explaining your behavior of getting the bathtub prepared by 6 p.m. Descriptive and easy, there’s not a lot additional nuance to it in comparison with the opposite two.

〜てある

  • いつも、6時にはお風呂をわかしてあるんだ。
  • I normally have the bathtub prepared by 6 p.m. (for a cause).

Right here, 〜てある is describing the day by day state of affairs that you just normally have the bathtub prepared and crammed by 6 p.m. As a result of 〜てある is situation-focused, slightly than action-focused, the emphasis on this instance is on the bathtub and it being prepared and scorching. It additionally implies that there is a explicit cause, which could be type of apparent on this case — for you or your loved ones to take a shower. Perhaps you might have it prepared by 6 p.m. since you prefer to take a shower after dinner. Or perhaps to let your pet capybaras soak and swim in it. Who is aware of, however 〜てある implies you probably did it for a cause.

〜ておく

  • いつも、6時にはお風呂をわかしておくんだ。
  • I normally have the bathtub prepared by 6 p.m. (so I will not have to fret in regards to the bathtub not being prepared by the point somebody wants it).

〜ておく right here is describing your routine motion of working the bathtub and having it prepared by 6 p.m., emphasizing that you just accomplish that in your future comfort. Keep in mind, 〜ておく is action-focused so it places an emphasis on the motion you carry out.

The nuance of 〜ておく is that you just carry out the motion so that you’re executed with the duty and you may put it out of your thoughts. Perhaps your companion comes residence at 6:01 and takes a shower at 6:02 daily. You’d wish to mark off this job of your to-dos in order that you do not fear about messing up their day by day schedule by any likelihood.

Beginning a New Behavior

We might most likely put together 100 extra examples that will help you grasp the nuanced variations between 〜ている, 〜てある, and 〜ておく, however for now let’s go away it right here so you possibly can put it apart and course of what you realized.

Hopefully, you might have a good suggestion of how all three kinds differ, and the implications behind utilizing them to speak about one thing you are presently doing or do repeatedly, the present state of issues, or one thing you ready upfront in your future comfort.

Like many phrases in Japanese, rather a lot can depend upon the context. However the extra you observe, the extra progress you may make in mastering these kinds!

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