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D-Day in Kyiv – O’Reilly


My expertise working with Ukraine’s
Offensive Cyber Crew

By Jeffrey Carr
March 22, 2022

When Russia invaded Ukraine on February twenty fourth,  I had been working with two offensive cyber operators from GURMO—Primary Intelligence Directorate of the Ministry of Protection of Ukraine—for a number of months making an attempt to assist them increase funds to develop improvement on an OSINT (Open Supply Intelligence) platform that they had invented and have been utilizing to determine and observe Russian terrorists within the area. Because the expertise was delicate, we used Sign for voice and textual content calls. There was quite a lot of rigidity in the course of the first few weeks of February on account of Russia’s army buildup on Ukraine’s borders and the uncertainty of what Putin would do.

Be taught quicker. Dig deeper. See farther.

Then on February twenty fourth at 6am in Kyiv (February 23, 8pm in Seattle the place I stay), it occurred.

SIGNAL log 23 FEB 2022 20:00 (Seattle)  / 24 FEB 2022 06:00 (Kyiv)

Missed audio name - 8:00pm
It began
Incoming audio name - 9:37PM
                    Name dropped.
                    Are you there?

I didn’t hear from my GURMO pal once more for 10 hours. When he pinged me on Sign, it was from a bunker. They have been anticipating one other missile assault at any second.

Learn this”, he stated, and despatched me this hyperlink. “Use Google Translate.

It linked to an article that described Russia’s operations plan for its assault on Ukraine, obtained by sources of Ukrainian information web site ZN.UA. It stated that the Russian army had sabotage teams already positioned in Ukraine whose job was to knock out energy and communications within the first 24 hours with the intention to trigger panic. Acts of arson and looting would observe, with the objective of distracting regulation enforcement from chasing down the saboteurs. Then, large cyber assaults would take down authorities web sites, together with the Workplace of the President, the Common Workers, the Cupboard, and the Parliament (the Verkhovna Rada). The Russian army anticipated little resistance when it moved in opposition to Kyiv and believed that it might seize the capital in a matter of days.

The specified result’s to grab the management of the state (it isn’t specified who precisely) and power a peace settlement to be signed on Russian phrases below blackmail and the opportunity of the loss of life of numerous civilians.

Even when a part of the nation’s management is evacuated, some pro-Russian politicians will have the ability to “take duty” and signal paperwork, citing the “escape” of the political management from Kyiv.

Consequently, Ukraine could be divided into two components—on the precept of West and East Germany, or North and South Korea.

On the identical time, the Russian Federation acknowledges the professional a part of Ukraine that may signal these agreements and can be loyal to the Russian Federation. Guided by the precept: “he who controls the capital—he controls the state.”

The primary vital Russian cyber assault of
the struggle is suspected to be the one which took down satellite tv for pc supplier ViaSat at
exactly 06:00 Kyiv time (04:00 UTC), the precise time that Russia began its

The trigger is believed to be a malicious
firmware replace despatched to ViaSat clients that “bricked” the satellite tv for pc modems.
Since ViaSat is a protection contractor, the NSA, France’s ANSSI, and Ukrainian
Intelligence are investigating. ViaSat employed Mandiant to deal with digital
forensics and incident response (DFIR).

Is Ukraine planning to retaliate?”, I requested.

We’re partaking in six hours. I’ll preserve you knowledgeable.

That final alternate occurred about 22 hours
after the beginning of the struggle.

FEB 25, 2022 07:51

I acquired a Sign alert.

Obtain prepared” and a hyperlink.

The GURMO cyber crew had gained entry to the accounting and doc administration system at Russian Army Unit 6762, a part of the Ministry of Inner Affairs that offers with riot management, terrorists, and the territorial protection of Russia. They downloaded all of their personnel knowledge, together with passports, army IDs, bank cards, and fee data. I used to be despatched a sampling of paperwork to do additional analysis and put up by way of my channels.

The bank cards have been all issued by Sberbank. “What are you going to do with these”, I requested. He despatched me a wink and a smile icon on Sign and stated:

Purchase weapons and ammo for our troops! 
We begin once more at 6:30am tomorrow. 
If you get up, be a part of us.
                    Will do!

Over the subsequent few days, GURMO’s offensive
cyber crew hacked a dizzying array of Russian targets and stole hundreds of
recordsdata from:

  • Black Sea Fleet’s communications
  • FSB Particular Operations unit 607
  • Sergey G. Buev, the Chief Missile
    Officer of the Ministry of Protection
  • Federal Air Transport Company

All the pieces was in Russian, so the interpretation course of was very time-consuming. There have been actually tons of of paperwork in all totally different file sorts, and to make the interpretation course of even tougher, lots of the paperwork have been pictures of a doc. You possibly can’t simply add these into Google Translate. You must obtain the Google Translate app onto your cell phone, then level it on the doc in your display and browse it that manner.

As soon as I had learn sufficient, I might write a put up at my Inside Cyber Warfare Substack that offered info and context to the breach. Between the interpretation, analysis, writing, and communication with GURMO ,who have been 11 hours forward (10 hours after the time change), I used to be getting about 4 ½ hours of sleep every evening.

We Want Media Assist

MARCH 1, 2022 09:46 (Seattle)

On Sign

We'd like media assist from USA.
All of the assaults you talked about throughout these 6 days.
Now we have to make headlines to demoralize Russians.

                   I do know the crew at a younger British PR agency.
                   I’ll examine with them now.

Nara Communications instantly stepped as much as the problem. They agreed to waive their charge and assist place information tales concerning the GURMO cyber crew’s successes. The Ukrainians did their half and gave them some wonderful breaches, beginning with the Beloyarsk Nuclear Energy Plant—the world’s solely business quick breeder reactors. Different international locations have been spending billions of {dollars} making an attempt to realize what Russia had already mastered, so a breach of their design paperwork and processes was a giant deal.

The issue was that journalists wished to
communicate to GURMO and that was off the desk for 3 essential causes:

  1. They have been too busy combating a struggle to provide interviews.
  2. The Russian authorities knew who they have been, and their names and faces have been on the enjoying playing cards given to Kadryov’s Chechen Guerillas for assassination.
  3. They didn’t wish to expose themselves to facial recognition or voice seize applied sciences as a result of…see #2.

Journalists had just a few choices in the event that they didn’t wish to run with a single-source story.

They might communicate with me as a result of I used to be the one one who the GURMO crew would immediately communicate to. Plus, I had possession of the paperwork and understood what they have been.

They might contact the CIA Legat in Warsaw, Poland the place the U.S. embassy had evacuated to previous to the beginning of the struggle. GURMO labored intently with and gave frequent briefings to its allied companions, and they might learn about these breaches. After all, the CIA almost certainly wouldn’t communicate with a journalist.

They might communicate with different consultants to vet the paperwork, which might successfully be their second supply after talking with me. Most reporters at main shops didn’t trouble reporting these breaches below these circumstances. To make issues worse, there have been no apparent victims. The GURMO hackers weren’t breaking issues, they have been stealing issues, and so they appreciated to maintain a persistent presence within the community so they may preserve coming again for extra. Plus, Russia usually applied a communications technique referred to as Ихтамнет (Ihtamnet), which roughly translated means “nothing occurred” or to place it into context “What hacks? There have been no hacks.”

Regardless of all these obstacles, Nara Communications was profitable in getting an article positioned with SC journal, a radio interview with Britain’s The Instances, and a podcast with the Night Normal.

By mid-March, Putin confirmed no indicators of wanting
peace, even after President Zelensky had conceded that NATO membership was
in all probability off the desk for Ukraine, and GURMO was popping greater targets than

The Russians’ plan to ascertain a completely automated lunar base referred to as Luna-Glob was breached. Russia’s EXOMars challenge was breached. The brand new launch complicated being constructed at Vostochny for the Angara rocket was breached. In each occasion, a trove of recordsdata was downloaded for examine by Ukraine’s authorities and shared with its allies. A small quantity was at all times carved out for me to evaluation, put up on the Inside Cyber Warfare Substack, and share with journalists. Journalist Joe Uchill referred to this technique as Hack and Leak.

Hack and Leak

By hacking a few of Russia’s proudest
accomplishments (its area program) and most profitable applied sciences (its
nuclear analysis program), the Ukrainian authorities is sending Putin a message
that your cybersecurity techniques can’t preserve us out, that even your most
worthwhile technological secrets and techniques aren’t secure from us, and that if you happen to push us too
far, we are able to do no matter we wish to your networks.

Other than the assault on ViaSat, there hasn’t been proof of any damaging cyber assaults in opposition to Ukrainian infrastructure. A part of that was strategic planning on the a part of Ukraine (that’s all that I can say about that), half was Ukraine’s cyber protection at work, and a part of which may be that GURMO’s technique is working. Nevertheless, there’s no signal that these leaks are having any impact on impeding Russia’s army escalation, in all probability as a result of that’s pushed out of desperation within the face of its monumental army losses to date. Ought to that escalation proceed, GURMO has contingency plans that may deliver the struggle dwelling to Russia.

Jeffrey Carr has been an internationally-known cybersecurity adviser, writer, and researcher since 2006. He has labored as a Russia SME for the CIA’s Open Supply Heart Eurasia Desk. He invented REDACT, the world’s first international R&D database and search engine to help firms in figuring out which mental property is of worth to overseas governments. He’s the founder and organizer of Fits & Spooks, a “collision” occasion to debate laborious challenges within the nationwide safety area, and is the writer of Inside Cyber Warfare: Mapping the Cyber Underworld (O’Reilly Media, 2009, 2011). 



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