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HomeDroneParticular Class Airworthiness Standards for the Joby Aero, Inc. Mannequin JAS4-1 Powered-Carry...

Particular Class Airworthiness Standards for the Joby Aero, Inc. Mannequin JAS4-1 Powered-Carry – sUAS Information – The Enterprise of Drones


The FAA invitations folks to participate within the improvement of proposed airworthiness standards for the Joby Mannequin JAS4-1 powered-lift by sending written feedback, knowledge, or views. Please establish the Joby Mannequin JAS4-1 and Docket No. FAA-2021-0638 on all submitted correspondence. Essentially the most useful feedback reference a particular portion of the airworthiness standards, clarify the explanation for a really useful change, and embrace supporting knowledge.

Aside from Confidential Enterprise Data as described within the following paragraph, and different data as described in 14 CFR 11.35, the FAA will file within the docket all feedback acquired, in addition to a report summarizing every substantive public contact with FAA personnel regarding these proposed airworthiness standards. Earlier than appearing on this proposal, the FAA will think about all feedback acquired on or earlier than the cut-off date for feedback. The FAA will think about feedback filed late whether it is attainable to take action with out incurring delay. The FAA might change these airworthiness standards primarily based on acquired feedback.

Confidential Enterprise Data

Confidential Enterprise Data (CBI) is industrial or monetary data that’s each typically and truly handled as personal by its proprietor. Below the Freedom of Data Act (FOIA) (5 U.S.C. 552), CBI is exempt from public disclosure. In case your feedback conscious of this discover include industrial or monetary data that’s typically handled as personal, that you just truly deal with as personal, and that’s related or conscious of this discover, it is necessary that you just clearly designate the submitted feedback as CBI. Please mark every web page of your submission containing CBI as “PROPIN.” The FAA will deal with such marked submissions as confidential below the FOIA, and they won’t be positioned within the public docket of this discover. Submissions containing CBI must be despatched to the person listed below “For Additional Data Contact.” Any commentary that the FAA receives that’s not particularly designated as CBI shall be positioned within the public docket for this discover.


The Joby Mannequin JAS4-1 powered-lift has a most gross takeoff weight of 4,800 lbs and is able to carrying a pilot and 4 passengers. The plane makes use of six tilting electrical engines with 5-blade propellers hooked up to a standard wing and V-tail.[1] The plane construction and propellers are constructed of composite supplies. As a powered-lift, the Joby Mannequin JAS4-1 has the traits of each a helicopter and an airplane. The Mannequin JAS4-1 is meant for use for half 91 and half 135 operations, with a single pilot onboard, below visible flight guidelines.

On November 2, 2018, Joby utilized for a sort certificates for the Mannequin JAS4-1 powered-lift. Below 14 CFR 21.17(c), Joby’s utility for kind certification is efficient for 3 years. Part 21.17(d) supplies that, the place a sort certificates has not been issued inside that three-year time restrict, the applicant might file for an extension and replace the designated relevant rules within the kind certification foundation. As a result of the challenge was not certificated inside three years after the appliance date above, the FAA authorized the applicant’s request to increase the appliance for kind certification. Because of this, the date of the up to date kind certification foundation is June 14, 2022.


As a result of the FAA has not but established powered-lift airworthiness requirements in title 14 CFR, the FAA kind certificates powered-lift as particular class plane. Below the procedures in 14 CFR 21.17(b), the airworthiness necessities for particular class plane are the parts of the necessities in 14 CFR elements 23, 25, 27, 29, 31, 33, and 35 discovered by the FAA to be applicable and relevant to the particular kind design and some other airworthiness standards discovered by the FAA to offer an equal degree of security to the present requirements. This discover broadcasts the relevant rules and different airworthiness standards developed, below § 21.17(b), for kind certification of the Joby Mannequin JAS4-1 powered-lift.

The Mannequin JAS4-1 powered-lift has traits of each a rotorcraft and an airplane. It’s designed to perform as a helicopter for takeoff and touchdown and as an airplane cruising at increased speeds than a helicopter through the en-route portion of flight operations. The electrical engines on the Joby Mannequin JAS4-1 powered-lift will use electrical energy as an alternative of air and gasoline combustion to propel the plane by means of six 5-bladed composite variable-pitch propellers. The propeller blade pitch is electronically managed and the blades are asymmetrically spaced across the hub for acoustic noise discount. Accordingly, the Joby Mannequin JAS4-1 powered-lift proposed airworthiness standards include requirements from elements 23, 33, and 35 in addition to different proposed airworthiness standards particular for a powered-lift.

For the present rules which are included with out modification, these proposed airworthiness standards embrace all amendments to the present half 23, 33, and 35 airworthiness requirements in impact as of the appliance date of June 14, 2022. These are half 23, modification 23-64, half 33, modification 33-34, and half 35, modification 35-10.

The Joby Mannequin JAS4-1 powered-lift proposed airworthiness standards additionally embrace new performance-based standards consisting of half 23 requirements as modified by modification 23-64. The FAA developed these standards as a result of no present customary captures the powered-lift’s transitional flight modes. The proposed standards additionally include definitions particular for a powered-lift, corresponding to flight modes, configurations, speeds, and terminology. Moreover, electric-engine and associated propeller airworthiness standards are proposed. The brand new necessities particular to the Joby Mannequin JAS4-1 use a “JS4.xxxx” section-numbering scheme.

The FAA chosen and designed the actual airworthiness standards proposed on this discover for the next causes:

Plane-Stage Necessities

The proposed set up necessities for cockpit voice and flight knowledge recorders stay unchanged from the traditional class airplane airworthiness requirements partially 23. The proposed requirement to organize Directions for Continued Airworthiness accounts for the applicant’s possibility to put in kind certificated engines and propellers or to hunt approval of the engines and propellers below the plane kind certificates.


The proposed airworthiness standards embrace new or modified definitions to elucidate the distinctive capabilities and flight phases of the Joby Mannequin JAS4-1 and the that means of sure phrases utilized in rules which have been included by reference. Within the occasion of a lack of engine energy, airplanes and rotorcraft inherently have the power to glide or autorotate, respectively. Though the plane might maintain harm, the power to glide or autorotate permits the plane to moderately shield the occupants. Nevertheless, not all powered-lift have these capabilities. To handle this, the FAA proposes a definition for “continued secure flight and touchdown,” distinctive for the Mannequin JAS4-1, that modifies language from the present definition in § 23.2000; the FAA additionally proposes a brand new definition for “managed emergency touchdown” to seize the extent of efficiency the Mannequin JAS4-1 should meet, equal to a glide or autorotation.

As well as, as a result of most of the proposed airworthiness standards are performance-based, just like the rules discovered partially 23, the FAA has proposed to undertake § 23.2010 by reference, which might require that the technique of compliance used to adjust to these proposed airworthiness standards be accepted by the Administrator. As a result of no powered-lift consensus requirements are at present accepted by the Administrator, the technique of compliance for the Joby Mannequin JAS4-1 plane shall be accepted by means of the problem paper course of.[2]


Though half 23 (modification 23-64) changed prescriptive design necessities with performance-based guidelines which are extra simply adaptable to new and novel know-how, these performance-based guidelines had been written for conventionally configured airplanes geared up with reversible flight controls for fixed-wing takeoff and touchdown operations. To accommodate Joby’s capacity to have interaction in vertical takeoff and touchdown operations, these proposed airworthiness standards undertake language from elements 27 and 29, the place applicable, with modifications to permit for secure operation of the powered-lift under the stall velocity of the wing. The FAA developed proposed standards to deal with the mixing of alternating sources of carry: thrust-borne, semi-thrust-borne, and wing-borne. Whereas the FAA has expertise certifying oblique flight-control techniques corresponding to fly-by-wire techniques, Joby’s design makes use of a novel, built-in flight- and propulsion-control system that requires new airworthiness standards.

As well as, the FAA proposes a brand new JS4.2105, which contains all of § 23.2105 and provides standards in new paragraphs (f) and (g). Proposed JS4.2105(f) and (g) would make sure the pilot is able to executing a managed emergency touchdown within the occasion of a lack of energy or thrust, whether or not by the plane’s capacity to glide or autorotate, or by means of an equal signifies that moderately protects occupants.


Half 23 (modification 23-64) addresses electrical propulsion, however just for conventionally configured airplanes that use propulsion for ahead thrust. Joby’s new and novel design makes use of a distributed propulsion system to offer ahead thrust, carry, and management. Whereas a few of these design options might be addressed by present airworthiness requirements in elements 23 and 27, different options require the event of recent airworthiness standards. The proposed airworthiness standards tackle the next distinctive and novel powerplant set up options:

  • multi-engine isolation in a distributed propulsion system,
  • simplified management of distributed propulsion,
  • integration of a propulsion system into plane flight controls, and
  • energy-system crashworthiness related to vertical takeoff and touchdown functionality.

The proposed airworthiness standards in JS4.2405 mix engine and propeller management capabilities from § 23.2405 and § 23.2425 and revise the appliance to seize all powerplant management capabilities together with engine management, propeller management, and nacelle rotation. Power system airworthiness standards in proposed JS4.2430 would come with a requirement to deal with vitality system crashworthiness to seize the intent of § 27.952 and would delete necessities particular to liquid gasoline techniques. The powerplant fire-protection airworthiness standards in proposed JS4.2440 would substitute prescriptive language from § 23.2440 for designated fireplace zones, with generalized fire-zone language to deal with all powerplant-related fireplace threats. Electrical propulsion techniques introduce new fireplace threats from high-voltage electrical energy and battery techniques. Designated fireplace zones assume a kerosene-based fireplace risk, which is inconsistent with fireplace threats from electrical powerplant installations. These proposed standards are meant to permit for secure operation of the powered-lift utilizing an all-electric distributed propulsion system for thrust-borne, semi-thrust-borne, and wing-borne flight.


The flight and floor masses for powered-lift are typically comprised of three varieties of flight configurations: vertical, transition, and ahead. The proposed airworthiness standards should not taken solely from the forward-flight necessities of half 23 (for airplanes) or the vertical-flight necessities of half 27 (for rotorcraft). Powered-lift additionally depend on a transitional kind of carry, which can embrace a mixture of ahead and vertical flight masses. The aerodynamic circulate area across the powered-lift throughout transitional kind of carry might be significantly totally different from what’s historically noticed throughout ahead and vertical flight. In some flight configurations, the powered-lift might expertise a mixture of ahead and vertical flight masses (forces). In different configurations, the plane might endure a very new kind of aerodynamic circulate area, not skilled throughout strictly ahead or vertical flight. Conventional present airworthiness requirements don’t adequately characterize the aerodynamic masses, used for structural design, of a powered-lift. Due to this fact, the FAA finds that further airworthiness standards are vital for structural design. The FAA created JS4.2200 and JS4.2225 by revising §§ 23.2200 and 23.2225 to deal with the powered-lift structural design envelope. The FAA created JS4.2240 by revising § 23.2240 to take away degree 4 airplane necessities, as a result of the Joby Mannequin JAS-4 plane will not be a degree 4 airplane.

As well as, the FAA proposes a brand new JS4.2320, which contains all of § 23.2320 apart from § 23.2320(b). Proposed JS4.2320(b) incorporates a brand new fowl strike requirement particular for the applicant’s design. The FAA acknowledges the risk from fowl strike within the atmosphere through which these plane are meant to function is extra extreme than the atmosphere that rotorcraft or half 23 mounted wing plane function in right now. The Mannequin JAS4-1 has inherent design options and anticipated operations that probably expose the plane to a better chance of affect with birds.

The Mannequin JAS4-1 will function at altitudes much like rotorcraft, and the FAA expects it is going to cruise at airspeeds which are the identical as or higher than rotorcraft. Nevertheless, the FAA expects the Mannequin JAS4-1 will spend much less time in hover in comparison with rotorcraft, rising high-speed flight time. The FAA additionally acknowledges that the JAS4-1 shall be a lot quieter than typical helicopter turboshaft engines and rotors. Because of this, birds may have fewer cues to the existence of the automobile on account of quiet strategy environments.

All of those elements mixed improve the plane’s publicity to birds. Accordingly, the FAA proposes a extra complete fowl strike requirement for the Mannequin JAS4-1. As cited within the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) Rotorcraft Chook Strike Working Group (RBSWG) report,[3] an evaluation of fowl strike threats in opposition to rotorcraft confirmed the median fowl dimension for birds concerned in damaging strikes was 1.125 kg (2.5 lb). Primarily based on that analysis, the FAA proposes a fowl affect dimension of 1.0 kg (2.2-lb), per rotorcraft trade testing. The applicant should carry out an analysis on the plane degree to find out what elements of the plane are uncovered to potential fowl strikes.

The FAA additionally proposes a requirement for fowl deterrence gadgets to cut back the potential for fowl strikes. Analysis, testing, and use of bird-deterrence know-how has proven to be efficient in decreasing fowl strikes.[4] Alerting birds to the presence of the plane permits birds to keep away from putting the plane. Chook deterrence techniques might embrace, for instance, mild know-how to help birds in detecting and avoiding the plane.

Electrical Engines

The electrical engines proposed for set up on the Joby Mannequin JAS4-1 powered-lift use electrical energy as an alternative of air-and-fuel combustion to propel the plane. These electrical engines are designed, manufactured, and managed in another way than plane engines that function utilizing aviation gasoline. These engines are constructed with an electrical motor, a controller, and a high-voltage system that pulls vitality from electrical storage or producing techniques. The engines within the Joby Mannequin JAS4-1 plane are gadgets that convert electrical vitality into mechanical vitality; electrical present flowing by means of wire coils within the motor produces a magnetic area that interacts with magnets on the rotating armature shaft. The controller is a system that consists of two major useful components: the motor controller and an electric-power quad inverter to drive the 4 motors related to an electrical engine. The 4 motors embrace the drive motor, functioning as the electrical engine; the place motor for adjusting propeller pitch; the place motor for the engine-tilt perform; and the motor for cooling-system operation. The high-voltage system is a mixture of wires, power-conditioning elements, and connectors that couple an vitality supply to an electrical engine, related motors, and a controller.

The know-how required to offer vitality by means of these high-voltage and high-current digital elements introduces potential hazards that don’t exist in plane engines that function utilizing aviation gasoline. For instance, high-voltage transmission strains, electromagnetic fields, magnetic supplies, and high-speed electrical switches type the electrical engine’s bodily properties. Working at these excessive energy ranges additionally exposes the electrical engines to potential failures, which may adversely have an effect on security, and that aren’t widespread to plane engines that function utilizing aviation gasoline.


Half 35 incorporates airworthiness requirements to make sure that uninstalled propellers meet the minimal degree of security that the FAA deems acceptable. Half 35 necessities are applicable for propellers which are put in on typical airplanes, kind certificated below half 23 or half 25, which have development and blade-pitch actuation strategies usually discovered on such airplanes.

Rising electric-powered and hybrid electric-powered plane, particularly electrical powered-lift which are meant for “air taxi” kind operations in and close to city areas and able to vertical and quick takeoff and touchdown, typically characteristic propellers designed for each horizontal thrust and vertical carry. As well as, propeller blade-pitch actuation for such plane usually is carried out electrically, and is extra extensively built-in into the plane’s propulsion and flight-control system in comparison with typical airplanes kind certificated below half 23 or half 25.

Propellers are integral elements of a wide range of airplane propulsion techniques and, till the appearance of electrical engines, have been subjected to the forces of fossil-fuel-powered reciprocating and turbine combustion engines. Electrical engines current totally different concerns because of the elevated torque and probably increased revolutions per minute.

Essentially the most primary requirement, for all typical half 23 and 25 plane in addition to the Joby JAS4-1 plane, is to cut back the chance of propeller failure or launch of particles to the occupants and significant plane buildings and elements to a suitable degree. Options and traits of propellers should make sure that they’re secure for the certification utility requested.

These proposed airworthiness standards would require useful engine demonstrations, together with feathering, adverse torque, adverse thrust, and reverse-thrust operations, as applicable, utilizing a consultant propeller. The applicant might conduct these demonstrations as a part of the endurance and sturdiness demonstrations.


These airworthiness standards, established below the provisions of § 21.17(b), are relevant to the Joby Mannequin JAS4-1 powered-lift. Ought to Joby want to apply these airworthiness standards to different powered-lift fashions, it should submit a brand new utility for a sort certificates.

Proposed Airworthiness Standards

The FAA proposes to ascertain the next airworthiness standards for kind certification of the Joby Mannequin JAS4-1 powered-lift. The FAA proposes that compliance with the next standards will present an equal degree of security to present guidelines.

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